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Haemophilia is a rare condition that mostly affects men. Here, the blood does not clot properly.  The defect is usually genetic and includes excessive bleeding and easy bruising. Here are the symptoms:


  1. Any wound, even the smallest can lead to excessive external bleeding.
  2. Spontaneous nosebleeds.
  3. Prolonged bleeding after bleeding previously ceased.
  4. Signs of excessive internal bleeding include blood in the urine or stools, and large, deep bruises.
  5. Bleeding can also happen within joints, like knees and elbows, causing them to become swollen, hot to the touch, and painful to move.
  6. A person with Haemophilia may experience internal bleeding in the brain following a bump on the head. In such a situation, the person is often plagued with headaches, vomiting, lethargy, behavioural changes, clumsiness, vision problems, paralysis, and seizures.



  • Replacement Therapy is used to treat Haemophilia. The treatment includes replacing the factors that result in the clotting by injecting them or giving them intravenously with more potent ones.
  • These factors can both be derived from human blood or can be synthetically produced in a laboratory.
  • Presently, synthetically produced clotting factors called recombinant clotting factors are now considered the treatment of choice because they further reduce the risk of transmitting infections that are carried in human blood.
  • In a few cases, typically in patients with severe forms of Haemophilia A, prophylactic therapy or regular replacement therapy is essential to prevent bleeding.
  • If the bleeding once occurred fails to stop and is uncontrollable, demand therapy is given.
  • For patients with Haemophial B, a purified protein called Rixubis has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Others receive demand therapy, a treatment that is given only after bleeding begins and remains uncontrollable.

excessive bleeding

  • Other treatments, for moderate forms of Haemophilia A, include desmopressin, a man-made hormone that stimulates the release of stored factor VIII, and antifibrinolytic medicines that prevent clots from breaking down.
  • For pregnant women who are carriers of Haemophilia, doctors are able to test the foetus for the condition after 10 weeks of pregnancy.
  • There could be complications from treatment such as developing antibodies to treatments and viral infections from human clotting factors.
  • If treatment is delayed, damage to joints, muscles, and other body parts can occur
  • Future treatments may include gene therapy.


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