Haemophilia is a rare condition that mostly affects men. Here, the blood does not clot properly. The defect is usually genetic and includes excessive bleeding and easy bruising. Here are the symptoms:
- Any wound, even the smallest can lead to excessive external bleeding.
- Spontaneous nosebleeds.
- Prolonged bleeding after bleeding previously ceased.
- Signs of excessive internal bleeding include blood in the urine or stools, and large, deep bruises.
- Bleeding can also happen within joints, like knees and elbows, causing them to become swollen, hot to the touch, and painful to move.
- A person with Haemophilia may experience internal bleeding in the brain following a bump on the head. In such a situation, the person is often plagued with headaches, vomiting, lethargy, behavioural changes, clumsiness, vision problems, paralysis, and seizures.
- Replacement Therapy is used to treat Haemophilia. The treatment includes replacing the factors that result in the clotting by injecting them or giving them intravenously with more potent ones.
- These factors can both be derived from human blood or can be synthetically produced in a laboratory.
- Presently, synthetically produced clotting factors called recombinant clotting factors are now considered the treatment of choice because they further reduce the risk of transmitting infections that are carried in human blood.
- In a few cases, typically in patients with severe forms of Haemophilia A, prophylactic therapy or regular replacement therapy is essential to prevent bleeding.
- If the bleeding once occurred fails to stop and is uncontrollable, demand therapy is given.
- For patients with Haemophial B, a purified protein called Rixubis has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- Others receive demand therapy, a treatment that is given only after bleeding begins and remains uncontrollable.
- Other treatments, for moderate forms of Haemophilia A, include desmopressin, a man-made hormone that stimulates the release of stored factor VIII, and antifibrinolytic medicines that prevent clots from breaking down.
- For pregnant women who are carriers of Haemophilia, doctors are able to test the foetus for the condition after 10 weeks of pregnancy.
- There could be complications from treatment such as developing antibodies to treatments and viral infections from human clotting factors.
- If treatment is delayed, damage to joints, muscles, and other body parts can occur
- Future treatments may include gene therapy.